Dr. Amy Farrah Fowler, Ph.D., is a neurobiologist, whom Raj and Howard discovered as a possible match for Sheldon through an Online dating service (without Sheldon's knowledge). Amy is from Glendale, California, as revealed by Sheldon in "The Weekend Vortex". She studied at Harvard University (revealed in "The Scavenger Vortex", S7E03), and had a semester in Norway. She also has a doctorate degree in neurobiology ("The Roommate Transmogrification", S4E24). By Sheldon's own admission, she is most like him by any standard. Like him, she has previously avoided relationships (whether romantic or otherwise is entirely unclear), and only participated in online dating herself to fulfill an agreement with her mother that she dates someone at least once a year so she can continue to have access to her mother's George Foreman grill. She has her own apartment in Glendale, California. She also has a five-year plan to become Mrs. Cooper which appears to be working through the eighth season due to them discussing a future and having children together. By the ninth season, Amy wants to take a breather from their relationship and naïve Sheldon pushes her so she breaks up with him. Later on in the season; however, the two reconcile and resume their relationship eventually moving in together.
Mayim Bialik grew up in San Diego and got her first acting job (Pumpkinhead (1988)) when she was just 12 years old. A number of TV roles followed until in 1990 she was cast in Blossom (1990), the role which made her famous.
By 1993, while Blossom was still airing, she had already won a deferred place at Harvard and was also accepted by Yale but chose in the end to attend UCLA. She was awarded her Bachelor's degree in 2000 and began reading for a PhD in Neuroscience (studying Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in adolescents with Prader-Willi syndrome) which she eventually completed in 2007.
She continued working throughout her studies and was a regular on US TV screens, becoming a Prime Time face again in 2010 when she began her regular appearances as "Sheldon's friend who is not his girlfriend" in the hit series The Big Bang Theory (2007).